By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It must be stressed that the resistance of FRP to highly reactive chemicals is generally very good. It is recommended that surface preparation be accomplished using abrasive or water-blasting techniques, and all contaminants that could interfere with the bond between the FRP system and concrete substrate should be removed. This seems to be unfortunate because polymers are easy to process. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) micro/nanoparticles are the most investigated DDS due to the advantageous properties such as biocompatibility and biodegradability [37]. The most common “backbones” for polymers are chains of carbon or silicon, each of which can bond to four other atoms. 14.2). However, by combining the piezoelectric mode of sensing along with other sensing modes (capacitive or resonant), it is possible to make highly sensitive pressure sensors. Many FRP articles are routinely placed in contact with detergents, cleaning solvents, acids, alkalis, strong oxidising agents, bleach, cleaning and degreasing agents, fuels, hydraulic and brake fluids, de-icers, paint strippers (methylene chloride is known to be damaging), lubricants, etching chemicals, flue gases, or food and drink. 1.5 Submarines classified by GL will be included in the GL data file observing the secrecy requirements of the Naval Administration. In addition, this type of organic host can penetrate microcapillaries and therefore can go through the blood-brain barrier due to the small size of particles [30–32]. Prior to FRP application, the concrete surface should be prepared to a minimum CSP 3. Appendix A: Current and Promising Polymer Research Topics, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Appendix B: Present and Potential Future Uses of Polymers by the Navy. They are all polymers! For example, a lower-weight superstructure and hull mass would result in a lighter, smaller, and more stable vessel. 2006). (B) Mounted on a catheter. 8.30. If the counterface is smooth, then wear may result from adhesion between the surfaces, and involve deformation only in the surface regions of the polymer. 17 (2008) 334–341. They are used in the construction, furniture, electronics, communication, packaging, energy, health care, transportation, and sports & leisure industries, in everything from tractors to detergents to fabrics to aircraft. I.M. However, many potential applications either have more demanding performance requirements or are unique to the shipbuilding industry and to the Navy, in particular. Stimuli-responsive polymers are another class of suitable organic hosts widely used to build “smart” targeted delivery systems with a triggered release of bioactive substances. When working under heavy weather conditions, slips and falls are much more of a liabilty. The coating is applied to a textile substrate by either knife-over-roll, knife-over-air, pad-dry-cure, gravure, dip coating or transfer coating. The polymeric excipients are inactive compounds that play an important role in the formulation of drug products. A composite structure embedded with intelligent sensors that monitor and respond to the structural health is forthcoming. 8.29. Aside from the present use of advanced composites in bow domes, several applications external to the pressure hull will be evaluated, and several others, such as “intelligent” hulls with special embedded sensors, are under consideration by the Navy. These identical structures, we understand as a unit made up of two or more molecules, join together to form a long chain. While such coatings are extensively used by the Navy, the panel believes that there are many new opportunities to improve the performance of coatings and to extend their range of applications, e.g., the reduction of flammability, as discussed above. These two classes of wear mechanism, involving surface and subsurface deformation respectively, have been termed interfacial and cohesive wear processes. In Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, 2013. The author of Chapter 7 is Dr Moy who has extensive experience of the use of FRP products in construction in the USA, Canada, Europe, Asia and Australasia. Robert et al. These include for example lightness, low cost, ease of manufacturing, and high versatility. The emphasis is on practicalities rather than theory. Another concern is smoke and toxic gases liberated by combat-initiated fires, as most fire casualties occur from smoke inhalation and impaired vision that prevent escape. Compression or stress in the membrane produces charge, which is recorded using the metalized electrodes coated on either side of the diaphragm. Another area of much significance is coatings for corrosion-resistance (including biocorrosion), reduction of signature and drag, and other purposes. 1.6 Submarines are required to … In the DDS field the following types of polymeric micro- and nanoparticles were investigated: chitosan hydrogel micro/nanoparticles, alginate micro/nanoparticles, polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel micro/nanoparticles, polyvinyl pyrolidone micro/nanoparticles, polyethylene oxide and polyetileneimine micro/nanoparticles, and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide particles [30,32,36]. Fig. (Fig. As fiber diameters are reduced, their stiffness and strength, and hence those of the composite material, are increased due to the highly aligned microstructure of the fibers and reduction of the flaws to very small sizes. John X.J. The progress in developing embedded sensor technology is arguably one of the most exciting developments for the future of civil engineering. Recent progress in the development of FRP composite materials and embedded sensor technologies are probably the most exciting developments for the future of civil engineering. , in Ageing of Composites, 2008. High cellular uptake and the ability to attach and release multiple therapeutic agents are also other advantages of prodrugs [19–23]. Following the trend set in consumer products, the Navy also makes increasing use of polymers for relatively simple parts, such as hoses, pipes, and gaskets. Biodegradable polymers are generally used for this purpose. properties of polymers. Such a sensor would address all the concerns that limit other current technologies from clinical adoption. 8.30). FRP applications in civil engineering have advanced significantly since their introduction. Part II reviews innovative FRP applications related to civil engi neering. Polymers. Continuing efforts in discovering new polymers as well as modifying existing polymers Alternatively, if the counterface is rough then its asperities will cause deformation in the polymer to a significant depth. Uses of Polymers - Polypropene has a broad range of usage in industries such as stationery, textiles, packaging, plastics, aircraft, construction, rope, toys. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. There are many different kinds of polymer materials, including cellulose, natural or biopolymers, silicones and plastics. Synthetic polymers are so well integrated into the fabric of society that we take little notice of our dependence on them. These problems were overcome by Sharma et al. FRP applications in structural engineering have come a long way since their inception about three decades ago. Polymers, whether natural or artificial, are big molecules made by linking up smaller repeating chemical units. A detailed account of the application of such surface modification is included in the chapter, which covered drug delivery devices, tissue adhesives, bone substituents, etc. All rights reserved. Zhang, Kazunori Hoshino, in Molecular Sensors and Nanodevices (Second Edition), 2019. The surface modification of these polyolefins by various techniques has led to the creation of a large number of biocompatible matrices. The formation of polyion complex between proteins, nucleic acids, or peptides and oppositely charged blocks from the micelle structure explains the capacity of this type of organic host to entrap hydrophilic therapeutic agents. Sorina A. Gârea, ... Horia Iovu, in Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites, 2017. In comparison with classical linear polymers, dendrimers, which are hyperbranched polymers, exhibit huge potential as versatile multifunctional nanocarriers due to their properties such as monodispersity, hyperbranched structure, nanosize, biocompatibility, controlled surface chemistry, high surface group reactivity, and the capacity/ability to encapsulate or to attach various APIs by covalent/noncovalent bonds (proteins, peptides, imaging agents, therapeutic genes, siRNA) [39–48]. They are cheap, mechanically strong, and biocompatible for many applications. AASHTO recommends that localized out-of-plane variations, including form lines, should not exceed 1/32 in. Polymer Application Polymer applications include biomedical and biomimetic applications such as drug delivery systems, biosensor devices, polymer-based bone grafts, fillings for teeth, dressings for cuts, biopolymers in molecular recognition, cosmetics, angioplasty and vascular stents, for catheters, in dialysis, ventricular assist devices and artificial heart valves, skin repair, and tissue engineering (Fig. Interests: polymers from renewable resources; synthesis of functional polymers; structure–property relationships; novel polymeric materials of controlled biodegradability; application of mass spectrometry techniques to the structural study of synthetic polymers at the molecular level Ready to take your reading offline? Fig. Considerable experience has already been gained in Europe with mine hunter ships built with glass and polyester composite hulls, and the construction of a much larger ship from advanced composites is being undertaken in Japan. Any navy vessel will face challenging conditions at sea. There is a growing consensus on the tremendous potential of these materials in addressing the challenges associated with the aging infrastructure all around the world. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. As stated in Table B.2 , listing polymer uses by the Navy, polymeric matrix composites and advanced composites composing one or more stiff, high-strength reinforced fibers with a compatible resin system are already used for many Navy applications, such as radar domes, rocket motor casings, and aircraft structural parts. O. Gunes, in Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, 2013. The microencapsulated PCM fibres can store heat for a long time. Lett. Finally, new scientific advancements have opened the door for the use of polymers in biomedical applications, which may provide future benefits to Navy personnel. (C) Tested inside vascular testing model. Marriage of these two technologies paves the way for the development of smart composites and constitutes a foundation for biomimetics in structural design. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. However, this extra step required the use of an adhesive layer and a proper fit to the final substrate. To prevent dissolution while in the liquid state, PCMs are enclosed in small plastic spheres with diameters of only a few micrometers. or the tolerances recommended by the FRP system manufacturer, whichever is smaller. A key feature of FRP composites that makes them so promising as engineering materials is the opportunity to tailor the material properties through the control of fiber and matrix combinations and the selection of processing techniques. In contrast, Chunyan et al. In pharmaceutical applications, polymers are recommended as excipients (e.g., binder in tablet formulations, film coatings, enteric coatings) for drug formulations, components involved in the synthesis of polymer-drug bioconjugates or prodrugs, organic hosts for drug encapsulation and matrixes for various nanocomposites/hybrid materials based on inorganic nanostructured agents (e.g., clays, mesoporous silica), carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, etc. The glass and carbon fibers commonly used in structural engineering applications have diameters in the order of 10 microns and produce composite elastic modulus in the range of 20–200 GPa (between those of concrete and steel) and tensile strength in the range of 400–2800 MPa (approximately 1–7 times the yield strength of reinforcing steel) (Gunes, 2004). Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. • Editorial Board • Guide for Authors p.1 p.2 p.2 p.2 p.2 p.5 ISSN: 0032-3861 ... application of polymers in energy and optoelectronics. The unit substance or substances from which the polymer is obtained is called a monomer. 8.31. The selection of a polymer as a suitable excipient is influenced by various criteria like drug solubility, rate of absorption, drug-polymer miscibility and stability. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Polymers encompass a broad category of large molecules created by the bonding of many similar constituent molecules. In this chapter, he describes the uses of advanced FRP composites in construction applications, the fabrication techniques which have driven those uses, and the advice available to someone thinking of using these materials. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. 8.31). Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, and they constitute the basis of certain minerals and human-made materials, such as paper and plastics. Polymers are a highly versatile class of material which are found in all areas of engineering from avionics to biomedical devices and the development and implementation of these rely on polymer applications and data provided through rigorous testing. Light weight, corrosion-resistance, and ease of manufacture provide the main impetus for the use of polymers in these applications, and the market share of polymers for such applications is anticipated to continue to grow steadily in the future. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. [85] reported the dual-mode operation of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) piezoelectric polymer diaphragm, capacitive, or resonant mode, as flexible intracranial pressure sensors. Plastics and rubbers are widely used in industrial applications; as piping systems for chemicals, transport hoses, conveyor belts, tanks, membranes and a large number of other products. In submarines, too, there are many potential applications for polymeric matrix composites, and there the achievement of a better balance in trim and an enhanced depth performance are often cited as potential advantages. APPLICATIONS OF POLYMERS:- In the case of polymeric micro- and nanoparticles, the burst release profile has been highlighted as a potential disadvantage. Polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules that are multiples of simpler chemical units. This developing idea is likely to grow rapidly in the near future, resulting in more efficient and sustainable structures. It is important to note that the reduction in heating and cooling loads, resulting from the use of thicker hull board insulation, could also reduce equipment weight and equipment cost. Fig. This section of Polymer Applications under Polymers is a right channel to publish all types of applications related to polymeric materials and their composites. The polymeric micelles are another example of organic hosts that favor the preparation of an efficient DDS due to their advantageous features such as: (1) suitable size (nanometric), (2) high structural stability, (3) amphiphilic behavior that attaches to hydrophobic and hydrophilic therapeutic agents, (4) prolonged blood circulation, and (5) versatile synthesis methods [50,51]. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) exhibits the highest piezoelectricity among all piezoelectric polymers. For printing and coating, the materials are microencapsulated first and then coated or printed onto the fabric surface by common methods such as the pad-dry-cure process. Polymersare very large molecules that are made up of thousands - even millions - of atoms that are bonded together in a repeating pattern. The hybrid materials based on polymers and different inorganic nanostructures like natural or synthetic clay (MMT, hectorite, saponite, layered double hydroxide), graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic nanoparticles exhibit remarkable properties such as high drug stability, controlled drug release profile, enhanced drug bioavailability, and pharmacological activity [52–54]. Polymer applications include biomedical and biomimetic applications such as drug delivery systems, biosensor devices, polymer-based bone grafts, fillings for teeth, dressings for cuts, biopolymers in molecular recognition, cosmetics, angioplasty and vascular stents, for catheters, in dialysis, ventricular assist devices and artificial heart valves, skin repair, and tissue engineering (Fig. Bug holes and voids are to be filled with epoxy putty. A brief account of the biocompatibility of polyolefins was also provided. The natural or synthetic macromolecular compounds (e.g., Sodium Alginate, Chitosan, Gelatin, Poloxamers, Guar Gum, Carrageenan, Pectin, Dextran, Starch, Polyethylene glycols, Cellulose derivates, Xanthan gum, Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), Polyethylene Oxide (PEO), and Polycaprolactone) are employed in drug formulations as binders, lubricants, tablet disintegrant agents, diluents, fillers, viscosity enhancers, gelling agents, emulsifying agents, and solubilizing agents [15]. In tribological applications, polymers often slide against harder materials such as metals or ceramics. TBT is very lipid soluble, so it is easily taken up by cells where it inhibits energy transfer processes in respiration and photosynthesis. A prodrug or polymer-drug bioconjugate is a drug precursor that can be activated by various stimuli (e.g., enzyme action that favors the cleavage of the polymer-drug conjugate bond) in the targeted site [24]. However, this approach also required multiprocessing steps and its result was not satisfactory. A polymer is a high molecular mass compound ranging from 5000 to one million and they are formed by the combination of a large number of one or more low molecular weight compounds. View our suggested citation for this chapter. What do DNA, a plastic bottle, and wood all have in common? However the sensor was bulky (in thickness) and use of air-cavity can prove to be lethal when employed for in-vivo applications (Fig. Society benefits across the board—in health, medicine, clothing, transportation, housing, defense, energy, electronics, employment, and trade. Engineers will hopefully become more comfortable with the behavior of FRP-repaired concrete structures, with standards that provide detailed procedures for quality control and assurance of the FRP repaired structures. The process by which the polymers are formed is called polymerisation. As the knowledge-base on the material continues to grow, so does the potential of addressing the challenges for ageing infrastructure. These fast and noncontact NDT methods will soon become an essential tool for damage assessment and for condition evaluation of existing structures. The spectrum of applications of polymers is immense. The chain has many links that are connected together. Examples are given of typical products and how they are used. The Navy also makes use of polymers in more critical and demanding applications, such as in load-bearing polymeric matrix composites, special coatings for signature control, coatings for corrosion reduction in waste-holding tanks, fuel storage tanks, and metal pipe linings, and so on, where polymers are often applied as part of a technology package to meet the needed performance criteria. [83] reported the film to be spin-coated on a flat substrate and transferred onto the rounded catheter backing. Polymer application in biomedical devices and instruments is noteworthy and several discoveries or inventions in the field have raised the standard of human living. Use of PVDF in piezoelectric mode yields the highest sensitivity. In order to improve the thermo-physiological wear comfort of garments, PCMs can be incorporated into a thin polymer film and applied to the inner side of fabrics. large molecule or a macromolecule which essentially is a combination of many subunits While the use of PVDF as a membrane for ultrasound transducers has been well known, application of PVDF for pressure sensing application is a recent trend. Polymers have many considerable advantages compared to metals and ceramics. Polymers | Panel on Polymers, Naval Studies Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council. also simulated relevant physiological conditions for testing of sensors (Fig. The advantageous features of polymers, such as high biocompatibility, environment friendly, bioavailability, high drug encapsulation capacity, and versatility, make it possible to combine these compounds as matrix with various nanostructures. The core is the active substance and can be discharged by friction, pressure or diffusion through the polymer wall, dissolution of the polymer wall coating or by biodegradation. 1.1). All kinds of polymers, either conventional engineering polymer or newly developed one, from thermoset and thermoplastic to vitrimer, are included. Hutchings, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. application of polymers 1. medicine:- many biomaterials, especially heart valve replacements and blood vessels, are made of polymers like dacron, teflon and polyurethane. It is rare for FRP articles to be attacked as rapidly as some common metals when placed in contact with acids. Nearly all the deformation due to contact or sliding takes place in the polymer, and the surface finish of the counterface has a strong influence on the mechanisms of the resulting wear. AST polymeric coatings improve the safety for workers on board, making falls and slips far less likely. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Otherwise, the well-informed selection of materials, in consultation with the suppliers and after reference to the relevant data banks, means that problems with chemical attack can be avoided. However, they do have some disadvantages, such as the removal of the degradable products from polyethylene and polypropylene from the human body or body fluids and the commercialization of the currently available products due to the performance inferiority compared to biodegradable and speciality polymers. While each application poses different opportunities and challenges, certain general directions are apparent. Their application allows to save energy (lighter cars and planes, thermally insulated buildings), protect food and drinking water (packaging), save land and reduce use of fertilizers (synthetic fibres), preserve other materials (coatings), protect and save lifes (hygiene, medical … Some Wikipedians have formed a project to better organize information in articles related to polymers.This page and its subpages contain their suggestions; it is hoped that this project will help to focus the efforts of other Wikipedians. Give up? Using PVDF, they reported four times higher sensitivity over existing commercial piezoresistive pressure sensor. In basic terms, a polymer is a long-chain molecule that is composed of a large number of repeating units of identical structure. The application of conducting polymers at the interface with biology is an exciting new trend in organic electronics research. (D) Results showing high sensitivity from proximal and distal sensors compared to commercial pressure sensors. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. 1-3 The nascent field of organic bioelectronics involves the coupling of organic electronic devices (such as electrodes and transistors) with biological systems, in an effort to bridge the biotic/abiotic interface. Gulf wars, and the fire-induced melting of an aluminum-based superstructure on the USS Belknap, a guided-missile cruiser, following a collision with the USS Kennedy, have contributed to this continuing debate. A surprising number of FRP applications involve occasional or prolonged contact with chemicals other than water. The wall of a microcapsule is less than 2 μm in thickness and 20–40 μm in diameter. Hwai-Chung Wu, Christopher D. Eamon, in Strengthening of Concrete Structures using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP), 2017. For implantable applications, polymer-based piezoelectric devices are commonly used because of their mechanical flexibility. A successful use of advanced composites in more critical load-bearing shipboard structures will likely pose many scientific as well as technological challenges, including the further improvement of existing manufacturing methods as well as the development of new ones. General application areas of polymer blends in automobile industry are exterior parts (body panels, seals, wheel covers, weather stripping, bumpers and fender, air dams, trims), interior parts (instrument panel, dashboard, door panels, steering wheels, seat and associated parts, instrument panel skin, decorative pieces), and underhood components (sensors, ignition compartments, fluid system, … The level of interface roughness at which the transition from interfacial to cohesive wear occurs depends on the nature of the polymer, but corresponds typically to Ra (arithmetic mean roughness) values between 0.01μm and 1μm. These special macromolecular compounds that change their properties to external stimuli (e.g., temperature and pH variations, light effect (laser triggered drug release)) include thermoresponsive polymers, pH-responsive polymers, and photo- and redox responsive systems [38]. The potential advantages listed in Table B.1 provide the driving force for an increased use of polymers, but their application is also tempered by concerns, as well as currently perceived or documented performance deficiencies in both normal use and battle conditions. HalliwellS. Paints when applied on a structure create barrier between the structural surface and corrosion causing phenomenon. The sea and weather will demand much from not only the exterior but also the interior of the ship. NDT methods with emphasis on advanced, non-contact, and fast techniques are and will be an indispensable tool for condition evaluation and damage assessment of existing structures. Finally, the experiences encountered with combat-initiated fires during the Falkland Islands and Persian, Conductive sealants (electromagnetic shielding), Vibrational damping (engine and motor mounts). Popular for dynamic monitoring, it is easily taken up by cells where it inhibits energy processes. 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