The composition, structure and Functional Feeding Groups (FFGs) of aquatic insects were investigated in Kodjoboué lake (South-East of Côte d’Ivoire) to assess water quality. Energy inputs in low order streams are the result of allochthonous sources, primarily in the form of litter from riparian vegetation. For example, shredders break down leaves that fall into streams while scrapers use primary production. Functional Feeding Groups Aquatic macroinvertebrates serve multiple functions in freshwater ecosystems. Next Chapter: Aquatic Macroinvertebrates - Status in the Southwest, Previous Chapter: Aquatic Macroinvertebrates - Habitat and Life History. Family . A sixth category includes species that do not fit neatly into the other categories such as parasites. This community structuring appears to be an occurrence that is biologically unique to lotic systems in the Southwest. As a result, the RCC predicts that aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in large-order streams should be dominated by collector species due to the increased FPOM present and the loss of periphyton to the system. We collected macroinvertebrates during dry and wet seasons from pools and riffles in 10 open- and 10 closed-canopy Kenyan highland streams. It is important to keep in mind, however, that many kinds of invertebrates use a variety of food acquisition methods. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Lower order streams are typically narrower and dominated by dense riparian vegetation, which shades the stream and restricts sunlight availability at the stream surface. The larval stage of caddisflies have very diverse diets and feeding strategies, occupying a range of trophic levels and functional feeding groups from predators and filter feeders. 116-129. According to the RCC, as stream order increases, aquatic macroinvertebrate communities should shift to reflect that change. Prepared by Stacy Stumpf, Patty Valentine-Darby, and Evan Gwilliam, NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, 2009. As a result, the community in lower order streams should be dominated by shredder and collector species. These functional feeding groups refer primarily to modes of feeding or to the food-acquisition system (sensu 31) and not to the type of food per se (e.g. Functional Feeding Groups: Shredders munch on decaying organic matter (leaves, twigs, etc.) High overall biodiversity (or number of families living in a particular place) indicates that there is a wide range of stable habitat and food resources in the area with very little pollution. Individuals are categorized based on their mechanisms for obtaining food and the particle size of the food, and not specifically on what they are eating. 2.3.1 CWA Section 305(b)--Water Quality Assessment 2.3.2 CWA Section 319-- Nonpoint Source Assessment 2.3.3 Watershed Protection Approach 2.3.4 CWA Section 303(d)--The TMDL Process 2.3.5 CWA Section 402--NPDES Permits and Individual Control Strategies 2.3.6 Ecological Risk Assessment 2.3.7 USEPA Water Quality Criteria and Standards Different streams will have different balances of these functional feeding groups, which can indicate the primary source of energy to the system. This nutrient rich food source, in turn, increases growth rates, biomass, and survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Aquatic macroinvertebrates serve multiple functions in freshwater ecosystems. A combination of chemical and biological methods constitutes the best approach for biological monitoring studies that measure water quality. Allochthonous energetic inputs into the system are reduced and autochthonous inputs in the form of periphyton become more important. Presence of flathead nymphs is often an indicator of good water quality, because they are relatively intolerant to pollution. The RCC has been the accepted paradigm of stream ecology since it was first proposed nearly 30 years ago. However, there is debate about how lotic systems in arid regions, such as the Southwest, fit into the model. Macroinvertebrates have different levels of tolerance for low water quality. Shredders feed on organic material, such as leaves and woody material, and help to convert this matter into finer particles. 1999). Community Parameter II Biotic Index assigns water quality values as follows: < 40 = poor water quality, 40-59 = fair, 60-79 = good, and >79 = excellent water quality (Bode et al. It spends most of its life in the larval stage, only emerging as a huge adult ... Functional Feeding Groups Author: Olympic National Park Genus richness for each feeding group is shown in parenthesis. For example, many filter-feeding insects of high-gradient streams are primarily carnivores (e.g. grazers), which consume algae and associated material; shredders, which consume leaf litter or other CPOM, including wood; gatherers), which collect FPOM from the stream bottom; ch collect FPOM from the water column using a variety of filters; and. The same general behavioral mechanisms in different species can result in the ingestion of a wide range of food items. The benefit of this method is that instead of hundreds of different taxa to be studied, a small number of groups of organisms can be studied collectively based on the way they function and process energy in the stream ecosystem. ... too. Overall, the functional … According to the River Continuum Concept (RCC), the presence and abundance of functional groups at any point along a lotic ecosystem may be predicted by considering the physical process that formed the streambed and the amount of sunlight occurring at that point. A sixth category includes species that do not fit neatly into the other categories such as parasites. This method of analysis avoids the relatively non-informative necessity to classify the majority of aquatic insect taxa as omnivores and it establishes linkages to basic aquatic food resource categories, coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), and fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), which require different adaptations for their exploitatio. Large rivers also experience a decrease in light penetration compared to mid-order streams. What happens to them? SO. bring out relationships between environmental variables and the functional characteristics (functional feeding groups, habits and resistance to drought) of communities. The abundant periphyton is taken up by grazer species and transferred into biomass. An assessment of macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups as water quality indicators in the … Many species of aquatic macroinvertebrates have evolved highly specialized feeding structures and behaviors in order to adapt to different food sources and competition within the aquatic environment. The species composition of aquatic animals may reflect water pollution level. As a result, aquatic ecologists have categorized the many species of aquatic macroinvertebrates into four functional feeding groups (Cummins 1973) which can be used to describe how aquatic ecosystems function: shredders, collectors, grazers (or scrapers), and predators. 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